You will prepare and submit a term paper on Discussion of a research article using Structural Equation Modelling. Your paper should be a minimum of 1000 words in length. The children were tested each year in areas that assessed their working memory, short-term memory and fluid intelligence (de Abreau, et. al., 2010). Research findings indicate that although working memory, short-term memory and fluid intelligence were significantly related, they were constructed differently in young children. Moreover, when controlling for commonalities between the short-term memory and the working memory, the latter was significantly linked to fluid intelligence and short-term memory was not. Using the Chi-square test for fitness of the model in terms of the independence of the three variables (working memory, short-term memory and fluid intelligence), a two-factor model was a better fit than a single factor model. Although the single factor model measured .96 in the CFI and IFI indices, it was low in RMSEA values. However, the three-factor model loaded the latent variables across each of the tests results for each year demonstrating that links between the variables: working memory ranged from .50-.62. fluid intelligence to short-term memory showed no significant correlations in kindergarten [.18, p=2]. Medium links were shown in 1st grade [.26, p=.12] and stronger links in 2nd grade [30, p=.01]. Therefore the data fit well since working memory, short-term memory and fluid intelligence are latent variables, and the underlying observable and measureable factors of problem solving tasks (beta values) reflect three separate but correlated factors: working memory, short-term memory and fluid intelligence in early childhood. Part II: The study proceeded on a strong hypothesis. The study hypothesized that based on the findings of several studies, there is a strong link between fluid intelligence and working memory in adults. Essentially, it is argued that working memory and fluid intelligence require attention control techniques. However the “underlying nature of” the link is not well “understood” (de Abreau, et. al., 2010, p. 553). Nevertheless, it is hypothesized that in fluid intelligence tasks, the individual is required to cognitively evaluate problems and devise a solution. Likewise, cognitive control may be required in working memory tasks to retain active memories for confronting problems. Alternatively, the short-term memory as opposed to cognitive controls explains the link between fluid intelligence and working memory. While some studies have been conducted with respect to young children, it is not clear whether or not working memory functions as either a cognitive control or short-term memory device contributes to children’s fluid intelligence (de Abreau, et. al., 2010). The study therefore set out to measure latent variables which are unobservable in a direct way (Bollen, 2002). The latent variables are short-term memory, working-memory and fluid intelligence. However, the study used tools that allow an interpretation of underlying factors that are predictors of working memory, short-term memory and fluid intelligence. In this regard a structural equation model was used. The structural equation model allows for variables to have an influence on each other in a reciprocal way. This can be accomplished in a direct way or through other variables acting as mediums (Fox, 2006). The strengths of de Abreau et. al.
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