Write a 7 pages paper on who was john collier, and what role did he play in creating a new deal for native people. John Collier became commissioner of Indian affairs in 1933 as appointed by President Roosevelt. Under Collier’s governance, federal policies had sweeping and permanent changes in favor of the Indians. One of these federal policies was the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, which was also known as the “Indian New Deal” or the “Wheeler-Howard Act”1. The Indian Reorganization Act under Collier made lasting changes in the federal policy concerning Native Americans. One of these changes is ending the allotment of the tribal land to non-Native Americans. Two other changes include the act encouraging tribes to establish their own self-government and building a loan in order to finance tribe members who are putting up a business2. Prior to and aside from becoming a commissioner of Indian affairs, John Collier was also the executive secretary for the American Indian Defense Association, or AIDA, an organization which he himself founded in 1923, in order to fight for the protection of tribal property and religious freedom of Native Americans. Through the institution of AIDA, Collier was able to recommend doing away with the teaching to Indians of only the cultural values of whites. At the same time, it recommended that that Indian Service must provide the youth and their parents the necessary tools that will help them adapt not only to whites but also to Indians3. John Collier also asked Congress for the repeal of the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887. This particular law pressured American Indian tribes to abolish their own community lands and to have individually owned lands instead. The purpose of this was to promote Indian assimilation into the society of American whites. The Bureau of Indian Affairs, which Collier headed in 1933 provided for the successful passing of the Indian Reorganization Act in Congress4. John Collier’s idea of a “New Deal” for American Indians during his time definitely was all about the betterment of this particular group of people. He became commissioner of Indian Affairs in 1933 and so helped reform law in favor of the Indians through the Indian Reorganization Act. He was also the founder and executive secretary of the American Indian Defense Association, which issued recommendations on how Indians should be treated and educated. Lastly, he asked Congress to repeal the Dawes Act of 1887 in order to protect the tribal lands of the Indians. Explain French patterns of contact with Native Americans: How did their goals and type of colonization affect the success or failure of relations with Native groups? The French colonizers’ diplomacy and immersion into Native American culture guaranteed the success of their colonization. The French arrived in North America in the 1600s5, and established their colony there. However, unlike the British, who did not respect the natives, the French afforded them with the best treatment as possible. The success of the colonial techniques of the French that helped them establish New France in Canada was mainly due to their immersion in American Indian culture. The French were very interested in the culture and customs of Native Americans.


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