Write a 4 pages paper on controversy between safe and pure drinking water. Health impacts of some of the contaminants in drinking water are not clear. however, the availability of contaminants does not always mean that they will harm an individual’s health. The basis for determining safe drinking water is the national or international guideline, with the significant one being the WHO guideline for quality of drinking water. Drinking water can be obtained from two basic sources, which include surface water like reservoirs and rivers, and groundwater. Water has natural contaminants, especially inorganic contaminants from geological strata upon which water flows, and different microorganisms and chemical pollution. Generally, ground water is less susceptible to pollution compared to surface waters that are prone to various sources of fabricated contaminants. Moreover, in case there are no improved water management, the unhealthy residues of substances used in its treatment can lead to pollution, giving rise to presence of deposits in water pipes. In addition, contamination of drinking water can occur during the distribution of water arising from materials like iron, which corrodes and releases iron oxides into the supply system. Diffusion process taking place in plastic pipes may result in contamination of drinking water. for example, split oil in the surrounding area may result in water problems concerning its taste and smell. Drinking water treatment applied in public water supply includes a series of treatments that vary in accordance with the requirements of supply and nature and susceptibility of the source. Water treatments comprises of systems that coagulate, flocculate, filter and oxidise drinking water. The common oxidative disinfectant is chlorine and it provides effective and robust protection against pathogens. Standards upon which the safety of drinking water is gauged are revised regularly and supported by detailed documents that describe the various aspects of safety (Larason). Pathogen contamination of drinking water causes diarrhoea disease and is a significant characteristic of the drinking water quality. This problem is a result of water contamination by faecal substance, particularly human faecal substance comprising of pathogenic organisms. Many regions in developing countries, pathogens remain a significant cause disease. Therefore, breaking the faecal-oral cycle is crucial by preventing the entry of faecal matter into water sources and treating drinking water in order to kill pathogens. Nevertheless, such approach needs to function alongside hygiene practices like hand washing, which helps reduce the chances of person-to-person infection. Detecting and enumerating pathogens in water is not appropriate in many circumstances because of the difficulties and resources necessary. therefore, only two kinds of pathogen are used as indicators for faecal contamination. There is the assumption that once the indicators are detected, pathogens like viruses could be presents. thus, the appropriate action is necessary. Nevertheless, the time taken in analysing the sample means that if there is contamination then, the contaminated water will get to the consumers and probably it will be consumed by the time the analysis results are obtained. Moreover, the small volume of water sample implies that monitoring is not adequate for ensuring safe drinking water (Workshop on Emerging Drinking Water Contaminants, National Research Council 202). The most serious contaminants of water are chemicals that occur naturally and they are found in groundwater.


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