Write a 3 pages paper on articles on learning assessment. Articles on Learning Assessment Articles on Learning Assessment Introduction Curriculum-based assessment refers to the undeviating observation and the recording of the performance levels of students – with regard to the local curriculum, as the foundation for collecting information to guide instructional planning and decision-making. The method incorporates the express observation of academic competency – the basis being that a tutor should assess learners on what they have been taught (Witt et al., 1998). Abbott, Berninger and Fayol (2010), through their article, ‘Longitudinal relationships of levels of language in writing and between writing and reading in grades 1 to 7,’ discussed the importance of early writing intervention – towards ensuring that learners realize better outcomes at higher levels of education, for example post-secondary levels. Summary of the article Early writing interventions can aid learners increase writing proficiency, which is necessary to succeed at higher education levels. However, helpful intervention needs the incorporation of assessment data, which is relevant to the instructional model. Such a model should link early writing evaluation with intervention. Students that develop effective writing skills are more likely to succeed better throughout their schooling process and after school: writing forms a critical requirement for general literacy development and is linked to content-area learning. Writing skills are important for college entry and success: it determines the entry of students into college and employment places including promotions. Unfortunately, many learners do not acquire effective writing skills (Salahu-Din, Persky & .Miller, 2008). From a national review, more than two-thirds of learners do not learn dexterous writing skills (Salahu-Din, Persky & .Miller, 2008). A recent survey showed writing as the second most cited problem area in schools: the risk is higher among learners with learning disabilities: the lack of writings skills makes learners presents work, which clearly expresses less ideas, of poorer quality and which is less organized (Bramlett et al., 2002). The early intervention of these writing problems can optimize the development of writing skills – especially for at-risk learners – minimizing the number that develops severe writing difficulties. Early intervention can be implemented at kindergarten or first grade levels (Graham et al., 2001). However, it necessitates assessment which is instructionally relevant: here CBA comes in. CBA has resulted in favorable outcomes in math and reading difficulties, but has not been applied to writing. The application of the CBA model in early writing intervention could yield very positive results in developing writing skills (Parker, Burns, McMaster & Shapiro, 2012). Analysis and response in support of article: position taking The article presents the hypothesis that the application of CBA in evaluating the writing abilities of students – especially at early levels of learning – and then subjecting these learners to early interventions can lead to the development of fewer or no writing difficulties. First, the basis of CBA is the evaluation of students on what has been taught. This model of evaluation is highly effective, as it clearly depicts the skills learnt, which reflects the writing difficulties in different learners. This is supported by the model proposed by Shapiro (2004), which proposes that effective learning evaluation depicts whether inadequate skills are related to environmental variables or instructional model – which is done through the observation of learners. The next step is the evaluation of the skills learnt and those not captured. The third step involves modifying the instructional model – so as to impart the skills not learned earlier. The last step involves monitoring the students – during the intervention process, and affecting additional modification in the instructional model, where there is need (Shapiro, 2004). Shapiro’s study supports the assessment offered by the article – as it incorporates the evaluation of students on the content taught, placing intervention where they can improve their performance and re-evaluating them to measure their progress following the assessment and intervention approach. The success of the model can be verified through the case of Samuel, a student at Lake Shore School, whose performance was greatly improved after his exposure to CBA and the usage of RTI model intervention on him (Rinaldi & Samson, 2008, pp. 8-10). The implications from the article and the evidence documented, as can be applied in my work with children Teachers should remain open to variations on how to identify students in need of intervention. the selection of intervention. the design, implementation and the evaluation of student performance. Teachers should also be flexible in how they conduct their evaluations, and the decisions made during the process (Shapiro, 2004). Teacher should be part of the observation team, when the learners are exposed to evaluation tasks. They should also engage the contribution of other professionals in the assessment and intervention team (Shapiro, 2004). The interventions used should be integrally linked to the writing programs or the course used at class. Finally, teachers should be willing to shift to more systemic approaches – where more collaboration and consultation are a core aspect (Rinaldi & Samson, 2008). References Abbott, R., .Berninger, V. W., & .Fayol, M. .(2010). .Longitudinal relationships of levels of language in writing and between writing and reading in grades 1 to 7. .Journal of Educational Psychology, .102, .281–298. Bramlett, R. K., .Murphy, J. J., .Johnson, J., .Wallingford, L., & .Hall, J. D. .(2002). .Contemporary practices in school psychology: A national survey of roles and referral problems. .Psychology in the Schools, .39, .327–335. Graham, S., .Harris, K. R., & .Larsen, L. .(2001). .Prevention and intervention of writing difficulties for students with learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, .16, .74–84. Parker, D., Burns, M., McMaster, K., & Shapiro, E. (2012). Extending Curriculum-based Assessment to Early Writing. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 27 (1), .33–43. Rinaldi, C., & Samson, J. (2008). English Language Learners and Response to Intervention: Referral considerations. Retrieved from http://www.k12.wa.us/SpecialEd/pubdocs/APR_Resources/ELL_RTI.pdf Salahu-Din, D., .Persky, H., & .Miller, J. .(2008). .The Nation’s Report Card: Writing 2007. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/writing/. Shapiro, E. S. .(2004). .Academic skills problems: Direct assessment and intervention .(3rd Ed.). New York: Guilford Press. Witt, J. C., Elliot, S. N., Daly III, E. J., Gresham, F. M., & Kramer, J. J. (1998). Assessment of at-risk and special needs children. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill Publishers.
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