Write 4 pages with APA style on Small Cell Carcinoma Tumors. In the bronchoscopic brush specimen, the tumor cells possessed more tissue fragments than in the sputum. In fine needle aspiration (FNA) specimens, both transthoracic and transbronchial, varying quantities of tissue fragments and single cells linked with apoptotic bodies and necrotic debris were observed. The loss of chromatin pattern can be induced by the degenerative changes, making the nuclei pale-staining with haematoxylin. Moreover, almost 50% of the reported cases of small cell carcinoma have areas affected by urothelial carcinoma, particularly adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma (Devilee & Tavassoli 135). The existence of these differentiated areas concurs with the diagnosis of small cell carcinoma. Most patients with small cell carcinoma of the bladder experience haematuria. Other patients reported localized abdominal/pelvic pain or dysuria. About 56% of patients, at the time of diagnosis, had metastatic disease commonly located at the lungs, regional lymph nodes, liver, and bones (Devilee & Tavassoli 135). Peripheral neuropathy, induced by the paraneoplastic syndrome, can also be an indication of metastatic disease. The paraneoplastic syndrome is likely caused by the tumor production of antineuronal autoantibodies. It was also reported that electrolyte level abnormalities like hypophosphatemia, ectopic secretion of the adrenocorticotropic hormone, and hypercalcemia are symptoms of the paraneoplastic syndrome that are associated with the small cell carcinoma of the bladder. Meanwhile, most of the small cell carcinomas of the urinary tract originated from the urinary bladder (Devilee & Tavassoli 135). The tumors look like a large solid, polypoid, modular, isolated mass with or without ulceration that can widely infiltrate the wall of the bladder.&nbsp.


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