Which is a way some people cope with the ambiguity

Which is a way some people cope with the ambiguity of human freedom?driftingshared decision makingappealing to some type of authorityAll of the above.Change or development in a desirable direction is called:personal growthpersonal freedomself-directionindividualismAltruism means:helping someone else at a cost to yourselfpossessing a sense of personal freedomhaving a sense of control over others’ livesfearing making decisionsAccording to Maslow, which disorder does not result from the failure to grow?stunted personamoral personapathetic personadjusted personResearchers have found high stability across a lifespan for which personality trait? a. introversion-extroversion b. perfectionism c. authoritarianism d. self-esteemThe highest degree of stability of personality has been found in the domain of: a. introversion-extroversion b. perfectionism c. authoritarianism d. self-esteemAll of the following traits remain rather stable over a lifetime EXCEPT:neuroticismexpressivenessself-esteemintroversionThe experience of personal growth usually begins with:reorganizing our experienceacknowledging changefeeling anxiety and discomfortchanging our attitudesAccording to Erikson, the second stage of psychosocial development poses the developmental task of:autonomy vs. shametrust vs. mistrustindustry vs. inferiorityinitiative vs. guiltFrom 3 to 6 years of age, children are faced with the crisis of:autonomy vs. shametrust vs. mistrustidentity vs. role confusioninitiative vs. guiltAccording to Erikson, individuals face the identity vs. role confusion stage at what age? a. 3-6 b. 6-11 c. 12-18 d. 20-40According to Erikson, in young adulthood, the inability to establish rewarding relationships with friends result in a sense of: a. inferiority b. stagnation c. despair d. isolationWhat is Erikson’s final stage of psychosocial development?integrity vs. despairgenerativity vs. stagnationindustry vs. inferiorityinitiative vs. guilt_________ is the addition of something that increases the likelihood of a behavior occuring again.TemperamentAttachmentSocial learningReinforcementThe process by which we learn by observing is called:punishmentreinforcementlearning theoryobservational learningCarol likes Dr. Reed, the supervisor of her practice teaching. In fact, Carol often finds herself adopting many of Dr. Reed’s methods and mannerisms in the classroom. Bandura refers to this type of learning as:classical conditioningobservational learningidentification with the parent figuredue to the effects of unconscious Oedipal wishesWomen in middle adulthood go through significant physical changes called: a. cessation b. menopause c. reproduction d. dysfunctionWhich statement regarding Alzheimer’s disease is true?Alzheimer’s usually strikes in middle age.There is no way to diagnose Alzheimer’s.Alzheimer’s is a degenerative brain disorder.All of these are true.Which statement is NOT true of hormone replacement therapy?It lowers the risk of most types of cancer.It helps to alleviate such symptoms as hot flashes, night sweats, and dry skin.African American women are less likely to use it than White women.It reduces the risk rates of osteoporosis and heart disease.Viagra is used to:treat loss of appetitetreat memory lossimprove facial appearance in womentreat erectile inhibitionAgeism refers to:the midlife crisisthe study of people over the age of 80the inherent rights of the elderlynegative attitudes toward older AmericansWhich of the following is NOT important in healthy aging?exercisingsmoking cessationeating wellavoiding physiciansWhich of the following is generally a sign of low self-esteem?savoring one’s accomplishments and successesbragging excessively about one’s achievementsexpressing one’s opinions readilymaking demands on oneself to do better next timeLow self-esteem is characterized by:refusal to accept praisepoor performance on academic testslooking at oneself in the mirror oftenAll of the above.Which of these is NOT associated with high self-esteem?greater happinessbullying behaviorsbetter job performancelower alcohol and drug abusePeople tend to elicit feedback that confirms their own self-perceptions, both positive and negative, according to:self-enhancement theorysocial-self theoryself-verification theoryideal self theorySelf-esteem of minority individuals is found to be as high as that of Whites because minority:individuals have as many opportunities as Whitesindividuals often compare themselves to each other rather than to Whitespopulations have grown in sizegroups no longer experience as much prejudice as they used toWhen people visualize themselves as competent, successful persons, they tend to:earn higher than average salariesbecome more successful than their peerscope more effectively with present problemssuccumb to pathological self-deceptionWhich of these is NOT key to quitting smoking?avoiding relapse at all costsgetting support and encouragementgetting medication and using it correctlylearning new skills and behaviorsThose most likely to drink excessively are:18- to 25-year-old menmiddle-aged menwidowers and widowspreteensThe leading cause of death among youths in America is:AIDSheart diseaseoverexertion on the athletic fieldcar accidents involving alcoholYouth are most at risk for drug abuse:at school eventsduring any major transitionsin middle schoolas college studentsThe use of unhealthy substances (e.g., cigarettes, alcohol, or drugs) is depicted in:10 percent of G rated films50 percent of PG-13 films80 percent of all films95 percent of all filmsThose who underreport their physical symptoms to health care professionals are:likely to be extrovertsknown as “hypochondriacs”self-conscious peopleself-healing personalitiesAlexei and Tanya were disappointed when it rained during their first day of camping, but Alexei said, “Let’s not panic. It’s supposed to clear up later today.” His upbeat attitude is characteristic of those who interpret undesirable events in:external, temporary, and specific termsinternal, permanent, and universal termsexternal, permanent, and universal termsinternal, temporary, and specific termsWhich of the following best exemplifies appropriate learned optimism?“I guess she isn’t going to call back.”“It was a good interview but nothing will probably come of it.”“She didn’t return my call; she must be busy.”“No wonder she doesn’t call back. I’ve been inconsiderate of her.”Optimism is especially appropriate in those situations in which:you want to gain people’s confidenceyour goal involves a high degree of riskthe cost of failure is highyou want to be sympathetic with people’s troublesBeing optimistic is inappropriate when:there are many risks involvedthere are many people with unique responsibilitiesmultiple solutions to an issue are availableNone of the above.Which of these is NOT a stage in the recommended process for decision making?search for alternativesmake a commitmentrise to the challengeavoid looking backThe most critical element in decision making, especially in the early stages, is:taking risksclarifying valuesvigorous information processingjustifying your choicesWhen presented with a modest person and a self-promoter, which did Japanese children perceive as more athletically competent?they were perceived to be equally competentthe modest personthe self-promoterneither was selectedAccording to the text, one of the four important components of emotion is:social interactionbehavioral stagnationcognitive processesself-efficacyWhich researcher has created a model of emotions? a. Bandura b. Howell c. Plutchik d. RichardsIn Plutchik’s model, which is NOT one of the primary emotions? a. acceptance b. disgust c. anger d. embarrassmentWhen people of various countries are asked about their experiences of different emotions, most of them distinguish emotions with regard to:primary and secondary emotionsinborn and learned emotionspleasant and unpleasant emotionssimple and complex emotionsMen tend to report more ________ feelings, while women tend to report ________ feelings.powerless; powerfulpowerful; powerlessnegative; positivepositive; negativeIf we see people as cold and withdrawn, we tend to attribute additional negative qualities to them. This is called:the halo effectstereotypingfalse cuesthe devil effectThe fundamental attribution error causes us to misjudge people because:we are impressed by wealthof their personal traits and characteristicsof situational and environmental influenceswe are influenced by unconscious motivesIn which country are people the least shy? a. Israel b. India c. Greece d. JapanAccording to the text, to overcome shyness, it’s best to:reduce the inner monitoring of one’s thoughtspay less attention to people around youavoid situations involving othersbecome keenly aware of how people see youShyness is on the rise in America because:more people are pursuing their own personal goalselectronic communication has reduced face-to-face meetingsmore Americans are moving to big, crowded citiesmore children are being placed in daycare centersThe most common activity among women friends is:telling jokeshaving an intimate talksharing a job-related choredoing a favor for a friendWhich of the following does NOT have an interdependent culture?JapanZimbabweThe United StatesLebanonWhen flattery is used in the hopes that the flattered individual will give in to a certain request, this is a form of:the bystander effectingratiationthe norm of reciprocitythe foot-in-the-door effectIn what type of social influence situation do we follow direct orders from others? a. conformity b. compliance c. interpersonal attraction d. obedienceWhich factor reduces social loafing?When failure is possible if and only if loafing occurs.When people believe their performance will not be evaluated.When the task is not important.When the group is not valued by its individual members.When groups make riskier or more conservative decisions than individuals, this is known as:groupthinkthe foot-in-the-door effectthe group polarization effectthe door-in-the-face effectTwo well-documented leadership styles are ______ and ______.severe; moderatepeople-oriented; task-orientedcasual; intensethoughtful; thoughtlessWhich is true of job burnout?Men are more likely to burn out.Those who are unmarried are more prone to burnout.Those who burn out are likely to have high self-esteem.Stress is rarely a factor in burnout.How do most Americans feel about their jobs?Despite all the griping, most Americans report relatively high satisfaction.Most Americans dislike their jobs and want a job change.Midlevel managers report highest job satisfaction.People at the bottom of an organization are likeliest to report high job satisfaction.Surveys on job satisfaction show that:People who love their jobs perform better than those who don’t.The highest-paying jobs tend to result in the highest job satisfaction.Workers prefer job where they don’t have to learn new skills.Recent graduates tend to enjoy high job satisfaction.When asked about ways to get ahead on the job, most American workers emphasize the importance of:being willing to accept responsibilityknowing the right peopleunderstanding how to use office politicscomplimenting your boss oftenHow has workplace technology changed our employment?It really hasn’t changed employment in America that much.It can affect us even before we are hired by means of e-recruiting.It has mostly affected upper-level management.It affects us only after we are hired and introduced to new technology.One of the best ways to increase the proportion of minority groups in the workplace is to:lower the educational requirements for many jobsraise the educational level of minority studentsprovide more high-tech jobs in the workplaceencourage minority students to take jobs in manufacturingMasters et al. found greater orgasmic variation in both the physiology and subjective accounts of orgasm among:men compared to womenhomosexuals compared to heterosexualswomen compared to menmarried couples compared to unmarried couplesWhat is the most significant life stressor for homosexuals?discovering their homosexual orientationtelling friends and family about their sexual orientationhaving their first homosexual encounterall of these are equally stressful according to the literaturePeople who believe they were born into the body of the wrong sex are: a. homosexual b. transsexual c. hermaphrodites d. transvestitesPeople who are born with chromosomal or hormonal birth defects so they do not really fit into “male” or “female” categories are: a. transvestites b. intersexed c. transsexual d. autoeroticA loving relationship based primarily on emotional closeness rather than physical intimacy is called:romantic loveconsummate lovecompanionate lovepassionate loveHypoactive, or inhibited, sexual desire is commonly caused by:anger, boredom, or anxietygenetic deficienciespsychopathologyhormonal deficienciesWhich statement about marriage in the U.S. is true?People are getting married later in life.People tend to marry someone of similar age, education, and background.Intercultural marriages are more conflict-prone but not more divorce-prone.All of these are true.Approximately _________ out of every 10 marriages end in divorce. a. 2 b. 3 c. 4 d. 8Which statement about marriage is false?More than 9 out of 10 Americans will eventually marry.Husbands and wives should be best friends.Differences and incompatibilities between partners are the major causes of marital dissatisfaction.Married people are happier and healthier than single individuals.An overview of numerous marital studies reported in the text indicated that a major factor related to marital satisfaction is:joint problem-solving abilitywanting the relationship to succeeda satisfying sex lifefinancial securityWhen women work outside of the home:they still do most of the houseworkthe couple is less satisfiedthe husbands usually do half of all houseworkthey do less housework than menHow do homosexual couples distribute housework?Work is fairly equally distributed.Work is distributed about the same as heterosexual couples.The more masculine partner does the most.The more masculine partner does the least.What is the correct sequence in the general adaptation syndrome?alarm, exhaustion, resistanceresistance, alarm, exhaustionexhaustion, resistance, alarmalarm, resistance, exhaustionDiane, a keyboard specialist, adapted to her stressful job with few complaints. Now, a year later, Diane has chronic headaches from the demands of her boss to meet deadlines and to type accurately. Such stress-related illnesses are likely to occur in which stage of the general adaptation syndrome?alarmresistanceexhaustionthe intermediate stageCumulative changes that reflect the cost to the body for adapting to stressful demands is called:homeostasisallostatic loadrepressionacting outThe unconscious blocking of a threatening impulse or idea from entering one’s consciousness is:denialprojectionrepressionNone of the above.Sarah’s father is gravely ill; Sarah, however, does not respond emotionally. Rather, Sarah convinces herself that he is in a good hospital and that the doctors are doing everything they can. Sarah’s strategy for coping might be: a. denial b. intellectualization c. displacement d. repressionWhen Mohammed’s girlfriend unexpectedly broke off their relationship, he said it was just as well because he no longer loved her. Yet, Mohammed did love her unconsciously. Mohammed’s response is an example of:reaction formationdenialsublimationrepressionA critical feature of obsessive-compulsive disorder is:an overinflated sense of responsibilityfear of dirtfear of losing controlanxiety about being anxious all the timeA(n) __________ is someone with OCD who wants his or her possessions in their rightful place and arranged in a certain way.hoarderpure obsessiverepeaterordererFlashbacks are associated with what disorder?OCDphobiaPTSDNone of the above.During college, three-quarters of all students experience some symptoms of:antisocial personalityagoraphobiaschizophreniadepressionPeople who become depressed in the winter months because of seasonal affective disorder are thought to suffer from an imbalance of the hormone called: a. dopamine b. melatonin c. adrenaline d. thyroxinWhich is NOT a plausible reason why women are more prone to depression than men?They aren’t; they are just more likely to seek professional help.Women have unequal power and status compared to men.Women are more likely to live in poverty than men.The region of the brain affected by depression is eight times larger in women than in men.Who is associated with cognitive therapy?Sigmund FreudFritz PerlsVictor FranklAaron BeckCouples often come to relationship therapy because of infidelity on the part of one partner. During therapy:the therapist works only with the offending partner.the therapist works mainly with the offended partner.the therapist focuses on both partners’ interaction.the therapist usually recommends that they split up.The most common mode of treatment in psychiatry is:biomedical therapy alonepsychotherapy alonefamily therapypsychotherapy combined with biomedical therapyWhich statement about antianxiety medications is true?These medications do not cure anxiety.These drugs are dangerous to take in combination with alcohol.They provide prompt alleviation from symptoms.All of the above.After beginning treatment, antidepressants take effect:immediatelywithin a few dayswithin two weeksafter two to four weeks94. In persons with schizophrenia, antipsychotic drugs tend to reduce:apathylonelinesshallucinationssocial withdrawalAfter the bargaining stage, individuals enter which stage? a. denial b. depression c. resentment d. acceptanceAcceptance of death includes:denying that death is imminentbargainingdisengaging the self from othersAll of these are part of the acceptance stage.The healthy process of working through the emotions associated with loss is called:grief workmourningunresolved griefbereavementWhich of the following is a normal initial response to death?sadnessguiltreliefAll of the above.About _________ year(s) is the norm for grief work. a. one b. two c. three d. four100. Which one of the following groups has an above-average death rate compared to others the same age?elderly people who are unhappily marriedwidowed men between 55 and 65 years of ageelderly widowers who have remarriedwidowed women between 55 and 65 years of age19



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