This lesson is to be used as a in text citation

This lesson is to be used as a in text citation with regard to the discussion post. Also Needs atleast one more reference from a scholarly research nothing from wikpedia, wikineeds to be from a . org cite. The book Theories of Development (Concepts and Applicationsby William Crain. Chapter 10.This week we investigate the relatively recent re-emergence of Vygotsky’s theories of childdevelopment. As compared to Piaget, his ideas have only been widely available to us sincethe 1960’s. One important contribution of Vygotsky is the concept of “private speech” inchildren. This is something anyone who has been around the very young has likelyobserved, children talking to themselves as they play in a way that does not even appear tobe conscious (e.g., they don’t even seem to know that they are doing it sometimes). Piagetalso discussed “egocentric speech” of children, but seemed to believe the children wereattempting to converse with others while they were doing it (Piaget, 1971).Vygotsky (1962), however, felt that this type of speech represented vocalized thoughts.According to Kronk (1994), Vygotsky felt that preschool-age children did this because theyhave not yet learned to internalize their thoughts. He also described private speech as selfregulatory in nature. There have been a number of empirical studies done to document thedevelopment and disappearance of private speech. Interestingly, up until the first grade,the more a child uses private speech, the higher his or her performance on tasks (Bivens &Berk, 1990). Around third grade, however, private speech decreases, and continued use ofprivate speech becomes associated with lower scores (Bivens & Berk, 1990). Somethingabout the period between first and third grade seems to represent a tipping point for theeffectiveness of private speech in helping a child’s achievement. Others, however, havefound that, for older children, private speech sometimes re-emerges when a child is askedto do a particularly difficult task (Berk, 1986).As children grow older, they come to understand that “talking to oneself” is not a sociallyacceptable behavior in most situations. The use of private speech in adolescents and adultshas been rarely studied in experimental settings. Kronk (1994) , however, found that, in anexperimental setting, adolescents did use private speech when asked to do a task in thelaboratory. She noted that when subjects felt less “watched” by the experimenter, they weremore likely to engage in audible private speech.Our textbook mentions the work of Meichenbaum and his focus on “self-talk” in atherapeutic setting. Meichenbaum (1977) found that asking adults to describe what theywere doing while working on a task improved their performance. Many sports studies havefound that self-talk can help athletes to improve their performance as well (e.g., Kendall,Hrycaiko, Martin, & Kendall, 1990). It has helped nervous passengers to overcome theirfear of flying (Rosin & Nelson, 1983) and nervous first-time teachers to feel comfortable inthe classroom.Vygotsky made several important contributions to educational philosophy, including theconcepts of scaffolding and the zone of proximal development. For clinicians with acognitive-behavioral orientation, his concept of “private speech” revolutionized many ofthe methods used to help therapy clients with anxiety, in particular, and other emotionalissues.



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