The 9 Crusades from 1099 -1300AD had a significant causal role
PLEASE answer the following 5 questions. Each question can be
answered with a short answer of 2-3 sentences. No more than 3 sentences for
Question 1.The 9 Crusades
from 1099 -1300AD had a significant causal role in the subsequent re-birth of science
and humanism in Western, with the Renaissance, Reformation and the Scientific
Revolution of the 15th, 16th and 17th Centuries, respectively. How so?
Please explain with examples to support your views.
Question 2.What were the
traditionally held Aristotlean Geocentric and Teleological world views
that were challenged in the Scientific Revolution of the 16th and 17th Ceturies
AD? Why were Aristotle’s view so strongly held? What were these two theories
Question 3.We see the use of
mathematics, reason and scientific observation change the both the subject
and method of natural philosophy from a qualitative to a quantitative
view of the world and its description. Explain this change, called the
scientific revolution, that gave us modern science. Support your explanations
Question 4.The scientific
revolution may be described as a movement away from Church authority and divine
authorship beliefs to an explanation of nature based on reason and observation.
Explain: including the people, their inventions and their theories that changed
forever our understanding of the world we live in.
Question 5.In the
Enlightenment, we see the abandonment of Divine Right theory and the
establishment and rapid expansion the Natural Rights theory of human nature and
political justice. How does this change in the grounding of political realm
mirror the change in the natural sciences realm? What is common to both
the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment?
The Crusades influence on the Renaissance
The Crusades and the
Crusades were not withouteffect
on the Renaissance and the Reformation. Friendly intercourse with the Islamic
world brought Europe into contact with accomplishments and virtues which were
felt to be lacking at home. Europeans became aware of a moral system
independent of Christianity that was … worthy of respect. Theological disputations between Christian and Muslim revealed the
fact that Catholic religious laws were not invulnerable.
Some Europeans took critical examination of their own condition. In Germany
suspicion of the motives of the Church in urging the wars against the Islam and
a reluctance to contribute toward the realization of the plans formulated by an
ambitious papacy and carried on by self seeking warriors became manifest. Germany will eventually revolt against the
infallibility of the Church kick started by a German monk, Martin Luther. The Crusades constitute a
in the history of Christianity, and their excesses have been the subject of
centuries of historiography. The Crusades … played an integral role in the
expansion of medieval Europe.
Beginning in the 11th century,the people of Western Europe launched a
series of armed expeditions, or Crusades, to the East and Constantinople. The
reason for the Crusades is relatively clear: the West wanted to free the Holy
Lands from Islamic influence. The first of early Crusades were part of a
religious revivalism. The initiative was taken by popes and supported by
religious enthusiasm and therefore the Crusades demonstrated papal leadership
as well as popular religious beliefs. They were … an indication of the
growing self-awareness and self-confidence of Europe in general.
Perhaps the most significant effectof the Crusades was a vast increase in
cultural horizons for many Europeans. For every European who went on a Crusade
(let alone the minuscule fraction who returned) there were hundreds who knew
someone who had gone, or who had seen the Crusaders march by. Palestine was no
longer a quasi-mythical place that people knew only from Bible readings in
church; it was a real place where real people went. Once Crusader kingdoms were
set up in Palestine, they traded with their kin in Europe, sending finished
goods to Europe and importing raw materials. The result was a stimulus to
Mediterranean trade. The need to transfer large sums of money for troops and
supplies led to development of banking and accounting techniques.
The most important effect ofthe Crusades was economic. The Italian cities
prospered from the transport of Crusaders and replaced Byzantines and Muslims
as merchant-traders in the Mediterranean. Trade passed through Italian hands to
Western Europe at a handsome profit. This commercial power became the economic
base of the Italian Renaissance. It provoked such Atlantic powers as Spain and
Portugal to seek trade routes to India and China. Their efforts, through such
explorers as Vasco da Gama and Christopher Columbus, helped to open most of the
world to European trade dominance and colonization and to shift the center of
commercial activity from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic.
The Crusades brought to Europefirst hand experience of the Near East
through the thousands of Crusaders who went to and from that region. The
knowledge and goods brought back to Europeans increased the interest of
Europeans in the Eastern cultures. For the images that had been implanted in
the minds of returning Crusaders, it influenced the minds of a great many, who
enjoyed philosophy, logic, medicine, and mathematics discussion with Muslims.
The Church, which had madeitself the leader of the Crusades, came to
suffer the consequences of their ill success. Faith in papal absolutism
declined; and a new religious spirit appeared, first in the offshoots of
Christianity (Cathari and Albigenses), and later in the Reformation (the pope
was not infallible). This spirit was fostered by the inspiration of that higher
culture by the development of the sciences, and by the growth of commerce with
the East, which enriched Europe and turned
the attention of men from purely religious to material and cultural interests
in the movement known as the Renaissance.
Some historians — particularly Crusadesscholars — consider the Crusades the single
most important series of events in the Middle Ages. The significant changes in
the structure of European society that took place in the 12th and 13th
centuries were long considered the direct result of Europe’s participation in
the Crusades. Although
the explanations for theCrusades may hold
some validity, advances in scholarship of the subject indicate that Crusaders
did not particularly look forward to crusading with its threat of disease, long
overland marches, and death in battle far from home. Families left behind in
Europe often had to struggle to manage farms and properties for long periods.
The Crusades did manage toreduce the number of quarrelsome and
contentious knights in Europe. The Crusades provided an outlet for their penchant for fighting and it has been argued that
European monarchs were able to consolidate their control much more easily now
that the warrior class had been reduced in number.
Socio-economic factors contributed to theformation of the Crusades as well. In the
second half of the first millennium West Europeans adopted a number of
agricultural innovations, including the heavy plow and the horse collar. It
seems likely that these innovations increased food production, which in turn
increased population, making manpower for expeditions available (and possibly
creating pressure on existing resources which led men to begin looking for
external adventures, according to some historians). In addition, the rise of a
class of lesser nobles who collected and disposed of local production with
relative efficiency may have contributed, by focusing resources in the hands of
the very people who could most profitably assist the crusades.
Treaties with Byzantine
Empire allowed merchant cities of Italy, Genoa, Venice, and Pisa to benefit
from the trading rights they were given in the Eastern of the
Mediterranean. All of these new goods,
found in large commercial quantities, in the Near East, opened Europeans’
desire to reach their sources. Indeed,
it can be argued that the Age of Exploration by European ships, roaming the world
looking for India or China, have been inspired by the descriptions of Crusaders
to the Holy Land.
One of the most importanteffects of the crusades was on commerce. They created a constant demand for the
transportation of men and supplies, encouraged ship-building, and extended the
market for eastern wares in Europe. The products of Damascus, Mosul,
Alexandria, Cairo, and other great cities were carried across the Mediterranean
to the Italian seaports, whence they found their way into all European lands.
The elegance of the Orient, with its silks, tapestries, precious stones,
perfumes, spices, pearls, and ivory, was so enchanting that an enthusiastic
crusader called it “the vestibule of Paradise.”
In Western Europe, thecrusades helped to break down feudalism.
Kings at home then increased their authority and feudal lords were fighting in
Palestine. Along with the religious ideas of Western Europeans was the desire
for power and land. When the Byzantines and Muslims were contacted by crusaders,
Western Europeans became interested in learning after hundreds of years of
The effects of the Crusadeson Europe of the Middle Ages were an
important factor in the history of the progress of civilization. The effects of
the Crusades influenced the wealth and power of the Catholic Church, political
matters, commerce, feudalism, intellectual development, social effects,
material effects and the effects of the crusades … prompted the famous
voyages during the Age of Exploration.
Chapter 17: The Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment:
The modern secular tradition initiated by the Renaissance was advanced by the
Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment. This chapter surveys the
major thinkers and ideas of these ages and discusses the principles of the
modern outlook to which they contributed.
Combining Ptolemeic astronomy, Aristotelian philosophy, and Christian theology,
medieval thought posited a hierarchical, geocentric universe. Renaissance
humanists and artists began to challenge this view by reviving classical
learning and by promoting accurate mathematical representation of the physical
world. Inspired by ancient scientific texts, the seventeenth-century scientific
thinkers gradually replaced the old Ptolemeic-Aristotelian model of the
universe with a Pythagorean-Platonic model. Copernicus took the first
steps in this effort when he challenged the cumbersome Ptolemeic system with
his Platonic heliocentric theory. Proposing the uniformity of nature,
Galileo grounded Copernicus’ theory in careful observations of planets, moons,
and stars. Galileo also challenged Aristotelian physics through
pioneering experiments with motion. In an effort to separate science from
faith, Galileo attacked uncritical acceptance of ancient authority, an attack
that prompted the church to denounce his ideas and silence him. Further
supporting Copernicus’ theory, Kepler’s laws fused Pythagorean and Platonic
principles into a mathematically harmonious account of planetary motion.
Answering the questions Kepler could not, Newton developed a physics that
explained mathematically all the phenomena of motion within the heliocentric
system. Newton also pioneered the modern science of optics and promoted
experimental technique, all while arguing that God was the architect of the
As this new model of the universe evolved, a new approach to scientific inquiry
emerged. Denying the traditional philosophical authorities, Bacon advocated
the inductive approach, arguing that conclusions should be based on observable
facts alone. Descartes promoted the deductive approach, proclaiming the
mind’s ability to formulate incontrovertible first principles from which
further knowledge may be derived. These complementary approaches to
rational investigation provided crucial intellectual tools to modern
experimental and theoretical science.
The Scientific Revolution erected the modern conception of a homogenous
universe, the structure of which could be represented in terms of mathematical
relationships and chemical compositions. Although the pioneers of this
view saw no conflict between it and Christianity, that view prompted spiritual
anxiety in later centuries, anguish poignantly articulated by
Pascal. Still, the Scientific Revolution and the critical spirit it
fostered weakened traditional Christianity and all the concepts of authority
that attended it, laying the groundwork for the Enlightenment.
What the Scientific Revolution did for the physical world, the Enlightenment
strove to do for society and politics. Cultivating Cartesian skepticism,
the philosophes questioned all received ideas, working thereby to liberate
humanity from tyranny and superstition. Many of the basic terms and
concepts of this movement came from the work of Hobbes and Locke. From
Hobbes’ secular political theory, the philosophes took the rejection of divine
monarchy, while rejecting its pessimism and approval of absolutism. From
Locke, the philosophes borrowed political ideas including natural rights and
constitutional government, and the epistemological notion that knowledge comes
not from innate ideas, but accumulated experience.
On this foundation, the philosophes built a systematic critique of Western thought
and belief. Denouncing traditional Christianity as brutal and
superstitious, the philosophes subjected the Bible to critical scrutiny and
rejected the clerical establishment. Most embraced rational deism,
promoting morality over ritual and freedom of conscience over coerced
observance. In the face of censorship, philosophes including Montesqieu,
Voltaire, and Rousseau advanced modern political ideas such as governmental
checks and balances, the rule of law, and government by general will.
Rejecting mercantilism, Smith proposed an enlightened economics in which
governments allow the invisible hand of the marketplace to work
unimpeded. Assuming the essential goodness of human nature, Rousseau
developed an educational philosophy that treated children as children, and many
Enlightenment thinkersâincluding Beccaria, Paine, and Franklinâdenounced
torture, war, and the slave trade. Although most philosophes considered
women inferior to men, their ideas contained the possibility of women’s
equality, a possibility Wolstonecraft hoped to realize through her critique of
women’s subordination. Finally, Enlightenment optimism and veneration of
science prompted the idea of continuous human progress articulated most fully
The modern outlook owes its core principles to the Enlightenment
thinkers. Borrowing the insights and methods of the Scientific
Revolution, the philosophes offered a rational, secular interpretation of
society that advocated tolerance, freedom, equality, and rule of law.
These ideals came to serve as the theoretical foundation of modern liberal
government and market economics.
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