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## Statistics- The frequency of each score on the dependent variable

Question 1Which of the following is most appropriate to be plotted on the Y-axis of a histogram?Question 1 options:a)The frequency of each score on the dependent variable.b)The scores on the dependent variable.c)Means and standard deviations.d)The levels of the independent variable.Question 2In a positively skewed distribution, which of the following is true?Question 2 options:a)You would have to have the actual data to answer this question.b)The mean is the same as the median.c)The mean is greater than the median.d)The mean is less than the median.Question 3Which of the following measures of central tendency can be used to describe the average number of people with various eye colors?Question 3 options:a)Rangeb)Meanc)Mediand)ModeQuestion 4Conceptually, what is the standard deviation?Question 4 options:a)The mean of the squared scores.b)The average amount that the scores in a distribution differ from the mean.c)Half the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution.d)The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution.Question 5A researcher shows that doctors who act more confidently are liked better by their patients, but only up to a point. If they act too confidently, their patients start to like them less. Which of the following best describes the correlation between doctor’s level of confidence and patient’s ratings of likability for the doctor?Question 5 options:a)There is a nonlinear relationship between physician confidence and patient liking.b)There is no relationship between physician confidence and patient liking.c)There is a negative relationship between physician confidence and patient liking.d)There is a positive relationship between physician confidence and patient liking.Question 6Which of the following is true of outliers?Question 6 options:a)They should be included when calculating descriptive statistics but excluded when calculating inferential statistics.b)The researcher can choose to remove them before conducting statistical analyses, but their removal should have a reasonable justification.c)They must be included in all statistical analyses.d)They must be removed from the data set before calculating any statistics.Question 7Which of the following is most clearly a statement about a statistical relationship between variables?Question 7 options:a)The average score on the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale is 100 points.b)Prejudice continues to be a significant problem in this country.c)About one-third of Americans have a psychological disorder at some time in their lives.d)âPain-Awayâ is more effective at treating headaches than its nearest competitor.Question 8What is the main reason researchers perform null hypothesis testing?Question 8 options:a)So they can use statistics to test the null hypothesis.b)To decide whether a relationship that exists in a sample represents a real relationship in the population.c)To decide whether the independent variable caused changes in the dependent variable.d)To decide how strong a sample relationship is.Question 9Dr. Kerry conducted a study which found a âstatistically significantâ relationship between the number of books children read at home during the year and their overall GPA in school. The result is based on a sample of 20,000 children. Which of the following is true?Question 9 options:a)The relationship could be extremely weak.b)The relationship must be a causal one.c)The relationship is extremely strong.d)Dr. Kerry failed to reject the null hypothesis.Question 10What does it mean if the result of your study is ânot statistically significantâ?Question 10 options:a)You reject the null hypothesis.b)The result represents a “real” result that is true in the population.c)The result may be due to sampling error.d)The result is unimportant.Question 11Dr. Sanjay analyzed data he collected from elderly adults who were trying a new medication to treat dementia. Some received the real drug while others received a placebo in this double-blind study. When Dr. Sanjay conducted an independent t test on this data, he calculated an actual t value of 2.36 and found the critical t value was 1.725. Which of the following is true?Question 11 options:a)He should have conducted a paired-samples t test.b)He should not reject the null hypothesis.c)His p value is greater than .05.d)He should reject the null hypothesis.Question 12When a study lacks statistical power, the researcher is in danger of which of the following?Question 12 options:a)Committing both a Type I and Type II error.b)Committing a Type II error.c)Committing a sampling error.d)Committing a Type I error.Question 13Dr. Moraff wants to compare scores on a math test before and after she teaches students how to use some special mnemonic devices to help them remember tricky math rules. What kind of analysis should she conduct?Question 13 options:a)Chi-squared testb)One-way ANOVAc)Paired-samples t testd)Independent t testQuestion 14A research methods student carries out a null hypothesis test. She performs all the statistical analyses correctly and makes the correct decision to reject the null hypothesis. Which of the following statements is also correct?Question 14 options:a)She may have committed a Type I error.b)She conducted a study which lacks enough power to detect a statistically significant difference between levels of the independent variable.c)She could not have committed a Type I or Type II error.d)She may have committed a Type II error.Question 15Dr. Ward compares anxiety scores for patients who took her new drug (which is very expensive to produce) and an old drug (which is much less expensive to produce). She determines that there is a statistically significant difference between the scores of patients who took the two different drugs and submits the results of her study to the FDA with the expectation that they will approve marketing of the new medication. What else needs to be considered?Question 15 options:a)Practical significance can only be assessed after the medication is FDA approved.b)The cost of producing the new drug may prevent these results from having practical significance.c)The number of patients who participanted in the study may have prevented these results from demonstrating practical significance.d)Whether or not she was able to reject the null hypothesis in her research study.

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