Provide a 9 pages analysis while answering the following question: DNA Extraction and PCR of Bird DNA for Sex Identification. Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide. An abstract is required. The difference in the phenotype is used as the basic identification step. Sometimes the phenotypic identification becomes complex in some species such as birds (they are monomorphic sexually). (Huffman and Wallace 2012). These birds are identified genotypicallyThe identification of DNA from the eggshell, feather, and blood is the safest way to determine the sex of the birds. (DNA sexing). The development of molecular markers to determine the sex of an individual is an extremely beneficial tool. In mammals, the males are heterogametic and they carry two different sex chromosomes X and Y and the females carry two identical sex chromosomes – X and X. whereas in birds, the males carry the homogametic sex (ZZ) chromosomes and the females carry the heterogametic sex chromosomes( Z and W). (Ellegren 2001). As many birds are not differentiated through phenotype, the use of molecular markers to identify the sex of the birds is practiced now. (Braun 2004). The chromo- helicase – DNA binding gene (CHD) is present in both the W and Z sex chromosomes but they vary in their size. Hence the use of size polymorphism in the CHD gene is the most common way of determining the sex of the birds. (Ellegren 2001).


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