Need an research paper on selective literature review. Needs to be 3 pages. Please no plagiarism. Human Resources: Literature Review Human Resources: Literature Review The human resource management department in almost all organizations is viewed as being responsible for how their bodies of workers are treated. Human resource management deals with hiring practices of business firms, payment terms, and the solving of all problems that are commonly associated with the workforce. In larger organizations human resource personnel may include specialists as well as generalists. Human resource management also takes into account the best ways through which motivate workers to accomplish even bigger goals than those stipulated by the organization manifesto so as to further develop the organization. Many times, the reasons why organizations do not realize their goals is not due to low pay or bad working conditions, even though these type of issues do occur, but because of a demoralized workforce. That is why most companies use so much money to ensure that their employees are motivated through recreational events as well as training sessions. Human Resource Theories All the decisions that affect employees in any business are of utmost significance to the human resource function. Human resource management may include issues such as achieving better compensation packages for attaining specific goals. Any time that an organization chooses to change the pay system for its workforce, there will be changes in employee perceptions of their own organizations (Sledge, Miles and Coppage, 2008). Herzberg’s Hygiene theory is one theory that deals with the importance of remuneration. According to this theory, certain conditions have to be implemented if workers are to remain motivated to realize organizational goals. Herzberg labeled these conditions as hygiene factors. In the absence of these hygiene factors, the workers will not be motivated and this can affect the performance of a company. Herzberg’s two factor theory recommends encouraging workers to realize organizational goals by giving them adequate salaries, and ensuring that they work in good and safe conditions. Pension schemes and pays for days on leave also allow the workers to feel that they are valued by the organization. The hierarchy theory, developed by Abraham Maslow, is another theory that addresses the importance of catering to the needs of employees in order to accomplish organizational goals. Maslow’s need hierarchy theory asserts that workers are motivated when different groups of essential needs are realized. First comes the satiation of primary needs such as food and shelter, and then comes the desire to be recognized. The fifth and last stage is the need for each worker to actualize his or her personal vision (Gelade and Ivery, 2003). The workers’ progress through the different stages is dependent on how well they meet the needs of the former stage. To ensure a smooth progress, organizations have to make sure that their employees’ needs are realized at each level to make this possible. Organizational managers can realize the physiological needs of their workers by offering wages that are adequate so that their workers may be able to cater for their own primary needs (Armstrong, 2006). Safety needs, on the other hand, can be catered for by availing retirement benefits, job security, and making sure that the working environment is safe.&nbsp. Social needs, which come at the third stage, can be tackled by encouraging a team atmosphere so that workers feel that they are a part of a bigger project. This helps the employees to be able to develop a strong working relationship with other workers that cater to their needs to build a social life. From a sales and marketing perspective, organizations can focus on specific needs as a way to promote or sell products. For instance, a fashion label can specialize on physiological needs like the need to be protected from the adverse elements of the environment such as extreme weather conditions, while also catering to self-actualization needs by creating clothes that can alter an individual’s self-perception and stimulate in them the confidence needed to want to realize higher needs in the hierarchy. McGregor’s motivation theory, another theory often used in human resource management of motivation, is often more preferred by organizational managers. According to this theory, workers can be motivated by rewards given for good performance, and punishments or penalties given for unimpressive work standards. This theory is often used in the more conservative organizations and is considered as being archaic in most of the more modern organizations. It is vital for all business organizations to be able to motivate their various workforces. Human resource management divisions that ensure that their employees experience job satisfaction are the ones that are more likely to benefit from the full potential of their workforce. References Armstrong, M. (2006). A handbook of human resource management practice. 10th Ed. London: Kogan Page. Gelade, G. A., & Ivery, M. (2003). The impact of human resource management and work climate on organizational performance. Personnel Psychology, 56, 383-404. Sledge, S., Miles, A. K., & Coppage, S. (2008). What role does culture play? A look at motivation and job satisfaction among hotel workers in Brazil. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 19(9), 1667.


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