Need an research paper on role of transfer in second language acquisition. Needs to be 7 pages. Please no plagiarism. Most researchers now presuppose that innate principles and transfer interact in L2 development, but researchers have varying positions on how these interactions take place (Gass 1996). This paper explores second language (L2) acquisitions theories and their analysis of the role of transfer. Universal-grammar based approaches contend that transfer has a significant role to play in L2 acquisition through the exercise of innate principles (Universal Grammar or UG) (Gass 1996:330). Two major alternatives explanations have been expressed by studies. First, learners have access to UG either (a) completely, in the way that children do, or (b) partly, in ways that other variables, such as L1 may interrelate with UG and avoid complete access to UG. Second, learners cannot access UG (Gass 1996:330). When exploring these possibilities, the first (UG access) hints that UG is the preliminary access stage for L2 grammar development. In the strong account of UG access, UG limits grammar development through the complete process of L2 acquisition. in the weak account, UG is the initial point, but the L1 is a vital part of the process, successfully stopping the full use of UG (Gass 1996:330). The second likelihood indicates that the L1 is the preliminary point and provides the foundations on which L2s build up (Gass 1996:330). Principles are important in second language acquisition and accessible to all humans during the acquisition of L1.Otsu and Naoi (1986) studied the principle of Structure Dependence, which asserts that linguistic rules work through structural units, through investigating data from Japanese learners (ages 14-15) of English (Gass 1996:330). The focus was on L2 question formation with subjects that have relative clauses (Gass 1996:330). In Japanese, questions are made by adding a particle without changing the word order. This means that from L1, there is lack of available information on how question formation is processed in English (Gass 1996:330). Generally, the subjects observed the limitations of the structure dependency, although by the age of the subjects, the results may not directly shape L2 acquisition as adults (Gass 1996:330). The goal of the study was to establish access to a principle that cannot be found in L1. Nevertheless, White accurately recommends that this principle may still manifest in NL through other structures (Gass 1996:330). If this is true, it is not certain if UG is directly accessible to L2 learners or whether it is accessible through the L1 (Gass 1996:330). Another theory that has recently surfaced is the Full Transfer/Full Access theory (FTFA) (Schwartz and Sprouse 1996), which has greatly influenced the literature. This theory argues that at the beginning of L2 acquisition, the L1 grammar is being transferred in full (except the phonetic structures of lexical items). Consequently, this grammar will be restructured, as limited by the UG (Schwartz and Sprouse 1996). Hence, the L1 provides the foundation for L2 acquisition. It suggests that a Turkish speaker learning English will use grammar based on Turkey, so that the English language can be learned. For instance: 1) I see a red house. 2) Ben k?rm?z? bir ev gorurum. In order to learn number one, Turkish speakers use their L1 grammar. In the Competition Model (Bates and MacWhinney 1981), transfer plays a large role.


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