I need some assistance with these assignment. moral and ethical principles in public policy Thank you in advance for the help! Public policy is what our individual representatives in Parliament choose to do, or not to do, about public problems that can have nationwide consequences. There are also public policy advocates that help bring public problems to the attention of Government on behalf of their clients and help Government made sound decisions or try to influence legislation in the favor of their client’s interests. Thus the actors or participants in public policy matters are primarily the Government functionaries, lobbyists and social pressure groups and other autonomous and semi-autonomous agencies. This paper will discuss the importance of public policy, actors in the policy macro-environment and their contributions, influences and value in shaping of public policy for a nation. The Importance of Public Policy A policy is a stated way of getting things done. It gives the procedures to effect a certain task in a given environment. It states rules and regulations under which business is to be conducted or a course of action is to be pursued. Policies are guides to action. It may also happen that when a certain course of action has been adopted and is followed consistently by a number of people or groups with no adverse consequences noted for quite a while, that in time becomes public policy regarding that matter. Public policy is said to define a way of life for society, in terms of acceptable behavior and rules and norms that become codes of conduct in that particular culture. It reflects what society regards as important to uphold and preserve in its actions and codes of conduct in dealing with others as well as each other. Actors in the Public Policy Macro-Environment Politics, like diplomacy, is the art of the possible. It is the authority and power to do what is right, to follow the will of the mass of the people, in choosing our actions and their legislation. We are what we do, and the same is true of society, as its moral principles are enshrined in its code of conduct and rules of law. Public policies reflect society’s most important matters and choices. There may also be a conflict of values, in which case a majority vote determines what is to be done or what receives priority over others. Actors in the public policy environment are the policy advocates, representatives at different levels of Government and in committees, commentators, lobbyists and others. At the highest level, it includes the President, the Governors of various States and members of the Legislature. At lower levels, it may involve school boards, the Mayor or the City Council. Of course, the type and number of actors involved in a particular public policy decision depend on its importance and reach- the number of people it is supposed to affect (Howlett, 1991). Do All the Actors Play Out the Roles They are Given Effectively? There has been considerable debate over whether the present procedures for enactment and consideration of public policy initiatives are sufficient to meet the purpose for which they were designed. Many a time it has been felt that we are proceeding at a snail’s pace when an important decision needs to be made.


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