I need some assistance with these assignment. approaches to psychology and ethics Thank you in advance for the help! This is one of those areas of studies which receives much attention from scholars and researchers and is evolving rapidly. There different approaches of the psychological studies such as cognitive approach, evolutionary approach, socio-cultural approaches, humanistic approach, behavioural approach, psychoanalytic/psychodynamic approach and others (Walker et al, 2007). All the approaches of psychology can be linked with each other as these study different aspects of feelings and emotion within a social context of an individual. Social psychological research studies the psychological aspects in social settings. Social cognitive studies are amalgamation of the social psychological research and cognitive approach wherein beliefs of an individual is studied within his social world. Cognitive approach is based on beliefs of individuals whereas cognitive behavioural approaches study behaviours and beliefs together. Humanistic and narrative approaches are based on lived experience of individuals in different settings. Psychodynamic approaches are based on feelings of individuals. All the approaches can be explained individually or with respect to each other. In the treatment of mental illness, behavioural processes and other psychological disorders, professionals can use one approach or mix of tow or three approaches for the best treatment of the client. Figure 1: Approaches of Psychology Source: Walker et al, 2007:5 Psychoanalytic Approach This approach originated through the disagreements psychologists had over the behavioural theories. One of the prominent contributors in this approach is Sigmund Freud. Freud treated various patients suffering from mental disorders by the use of conversation methods over a period of time. This is based on the assumption of “unconscious conflicts, motives, and defences” of the client which is not otherwise expressed in normal social circumstances. In the same process patient’s self-knowledge also got improved. Freud’s theories are based on the psychoanalytical concepts that focus on the ‘unconscious internal conflicts’ of the clients. Freud argues that the unconscious awareness of the client consists of his desires, thoughts and memories of lifetime particularly the early life experiences. There are various contributors who expanded psychoanalytical approach like Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, Karen Horney, Heinz Kohut, and others (Maitland & Hannah, 2008, p. 45). According to Maitland & Hannah (2008) this brought changes in thought and process of psychoanalytical approaches. These are also described as psychodynamic approach.&nbsp. Behaviourist Approach Behaviourist approach roots back from the time of Aristotle, Locke Thorndike, Skinner and many others. This theory ignores the genetics theories and determines behaviour of an individual purely on the based on assumptions of his environment and experience. According to Maitland & Hannah (2008), “The behavioural approach focuses on measuring and recording observable behaviour in relation to the environment. Behaviourists think behaviour results from learning. Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov trained dogs to salivate in response to the sound of a tone, demon- strating stimulus-response learning.&nbsp.(Maitland & Hannah, 2008, p. 45)” Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs are used in understanding human behaviour in various stages of his life.


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