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Hi, need to submit a 1500 words paper on the topic The Labeling Theory and The Cultural Deviance Theory. In response to question 4, labeling theory is chosen as the most appropriate theory to account for the case. Labeling and the Cultural Deviancy theories Introduction It could be argued that criminal activities are common in every society across the world. Furthermore, has been argued that criminal activities have existed as along as man and societies have contented and grappled with addressing them. However, what has been of great concern is the evolution and surge of criminal activities. In the attempts of addressing crimes, criminologists have sought to understand the causes and proposed an array of theories, including the labeling theory and the legitimate crime causation theory. This paper answers some pertinent questions in regard to the two theories. Response to question 1 The proponents of the labeling theory are concerned that the labels that are placed on the offenders through the justice systems. Such labels function to worsen the behaviors of the inmates because the labels function to aggravate the behaviors that need to be stopped. In the long run, this constrains recovery form criminal behaviors. The proponents are concerned that the criminal justice system has not only failed to stop criminal behaviors, but it is also functioning to reinforce the very criminal behaviors (Gabbidon & Greene, 2013). An alternative theory that could be utilized to avoid stereotyping within the criminal justice system is the cultural deviancy theory. The cultural deviance theory posits that the cause of the criminal behaviors in the urban areas can be hardly attributed to poverty, but to a distinct lower-class culture, which is mainly concerned about the societal norms. The social deviancy theory is based on the conflict perspective, thus perceives cultural deviancy as a condition that is normal that crime is simply a concept of conflicts within classes (Bereska, 2011). The theory posits that the lower class category contains its values, goals and ideals that significantly differ from those of other classes. As the individuals within the lower classes conform to these practices on the course of day life routine, they also interact with people from other classes. Their behaviors overlap and conflict and the lower-class group suffer the implication of being considered socially deviant. This theory also follows the account that as people conform to the values within the class, they may even impart the values to the subsequent generation. This theory acknowledges the basis of nature versus nurture, wherein the behaviors of persons are nurtured by the intervening social environment. Thus, cultural deviance theory is that which approaches crimes from the sociological perspectives. Cultural deviance theory does not present criminals as immoral and sinful people, and describes crimes based in the examination of race, social circle, levels of education and income, culture, among other social aspects and this makes it particularly suited to limit stereotyping within the criminal justice systems. Then the only weakness this approach is that it tends to justify crimes as unintentional. Response to Part 2 In my view, labeling is a legitimate crime causation theory on various accounts.

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