Data Science is a vastly growing field. Part of what makes this such a significant field to be in is its applicability to many other fields and nearly every industry. One of these is Artificial Intelligence (AI). Specifically, artificial neural networks (ANN) is a sub-field of AI. The topic is addressed beginning on page 249 of the text. The text notes issues with deep learning based on the vanishing gradient problem’s effect on learning. This is rather significant as it has made for ineffective learning, poor training, and test performance.
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