According to the biopsychosocial approach
1Running head: Application of Clinical Psychology: The Case of Little HansApplication for Clinical Psychology: The Case of Little HansMental disorders can come in many shapes and sizes. As you will see in the case study ofLittle Hans, actions that may not be thought of as a problem, could be affecting a child or personwithout even noticing. It is imperative that a person make note and be able to identify where thecore source of an issue is coming from. Specific to this case, anxiety plays a key role in Hansproblem and we will look into the biological, psychological, and social factors that led up to hisissues.The Case of Little Hans.According to the biopsychosocial approach, connections between individualsâ geneticdisposition (biology), personality and mental health (psychology), and sociocultural environment(social setting) add to their experience of health or illness (Plante, 2011). With the case of LittleHans, Sigmund Freud inferred that Little Hans encompassed a sexual desire for his biologicalmother, and when his biological father prohibited this behavior, Hansâ sexual desire for hismother transformed into anxiety (Meyer, Chapman, & Weaver, 2009). The anxiety that LittleHans was feeling was the reason for him to stay closer to his mother. Scared that his father wouldslice off Hansâs penis if his wishes were identified, Hans conveyed his fear of his father to adistress of the mere sight or thought of horses. At the age of 5, Hans had developed a nervousdisorder (Meyer et al., 2009). He feared horses because he overheard his father and his frienddiscussing horses and how his father warned his friend not to touch the white horse or it will bite.Finally, Little Hanâs anxiety vanished because he became more attentive of and comprehendedhis Oedipus complex (Meyer et al., 2009).Biological, psychological, and social factors involved with Little HansApplication for Clinical Psychology: The Case of Little HansIn reviewing the case of Little Hans, Freud indicated this study correlates to hispredicament in his theories of child development. Evaluating the case study, an implicatedreview that includes biological, psychological and social factors was contemplated. Freudâstheory presents the psychosexual stages of development and the childâs preoccupation with hisgenitals as the biological reference of the study. Freudâs theory also suggested oedipal complexor an extreme emotional attachment to the mothers and feelings of jealousy and hostility directedtoward their fathers. The psychological factors would the abnormal behavior little Hans hadestablished and phobias that connected to a classically conditioned to fear horses (Marked byTeachers, 2015). The case study also revealed as a part of the psychological factors Little Hanshad established anxiety; he was afraid to go out of the house because of his phobia of horses.According to Marked by Teachers (2015), âFreud came up with the conclusion that Hans wasscared of horses because he feared being castrated by his father as Freud said that his father wassymbolically the horse that Hans feared and he feared being bitten by the horse but really fearedcastrationâ (para. 4). In the social aspect to case the study was the fear to horses; Little Hansexhibited the fear of horses and would be problematic as he had an inability to leave the house.Little Hans fear of horses and leaving out of the house would indicate Little Hans socialactivities would be greatly interrupted.Appropriate InterventionsHans provided Freud with a psychoanalytic foundation to describe both cause and curefor anxiety. Psychoanalytic or psychodynamic psychotherapy includes concepts and theories ofanalytical psychology and psychoanalysis (British Psychoanalytic Council, 2015). It is arestorative method which helps clients in several ways. In Little Hans case, psychoanalyticpsychotherapy helped him understand and resolve his problems by increasing attentiveness onApplication for Clinical Psychology: The Case of Little Hanshis inner âconceptâ of society and its influence over connections both past and present, or inother words came to understand his Oedipus complex (British Psychoanalytic Council, 2015).Another method to help Little Hanâs is cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Many psychologistsuse CBT to assist individuals in recognizing and learning to deal with the components thatcontribute to their anxiety (HelpGuide, 2015). Behavioral therapy consists of methods todecrease how a personâs ideas contribute to anxiety disorders (HelpGuide, 2015). Throughcognitive therapy, Little Hans can identify his negative thoughts (ask himself what was hethinking when he started to feel anxious), challenge the negative ideas (questioning the proof forthe feared thoughts and assessing the reality of negative calculations), and removing the negativethoughts with realistic ideas.Rationale of InterventionBetween the biopsychosocial approach and Oedipus complex the two refer to thethoughts and processes of memories causing personality traits. Personality traits in Oedipuscomplex refer to jealousy, anxiety, and depression. These are all symptoms Little Hansexperienced in his childhood with his parents, due to the traumatic experiences of his problem ofmasturbation and their tendencies of attachment. Hans mother told him if he were to continue tomasturbate the doctor would cut off his widdler, and his father said if he did not stop hismasturbation he would not overcome his anxiety (Blum, 2007). The fear of castration causedanxiety to Hans and the fear of separation of his mother caused jealousy and depression. Therationale for selecting Oedipus complex refers to Freudâs major theoretical advances of anxietyin response to fear, dual drives, structural theory, and non-defense ego functions.The Cause and Effect of AttachmentApplication for Clinical Psychology: The Case of Little HansThe setting behind the cause and effect to Hans is in regards to his motherâs attachment toher child. Hans slept with his parents for four years and he was to bathe and go to the restroomwith his mother; causing sexual confusion to Hans because his father found disproval in Hanssleeping with his mother. When Hansâs parents were not clear in answering his curiositiesregarding the differences between male and female sex organs the confusion turned into himputting it all together himself causing his own fantasies rather than the truth of reality. Thesefantasize turned into Hansâs own reality causing him to have personality disorders. Not onlyduring his childhood did he have traumatic experiences and confusions but even after Hansâsparents divorced the tendencies continued altering tendencies to follow him into his adulthood.Freud suggested the parents focus on helping Hans with his education on order to understand hisfantasies to the realities of science and education to alter his reality, such as learning about sexeducation. Later, Hans seemed to be on track with his adult developmental processes (A. Freud,1980). Little Hans, in his adulthood, becomes Herbert Graf a science and art of psychoanalysisopera artist, thanks to Freudâs psychoanalytic therapies with Hans.
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