According to Sophie’s World, HOW is the universe like

Sophie’s WorldFinal examChoose the best answer for each question:1. According to Sophie’s World, HOW is the universe like a giant rabbit in a hat?a. Like a rabbit, the universe is warm and fuzzy.b. A rabbit is made of complex parts, and we so is the universec. A magic trick is strange and mysterious, and so is the fact that we exist here in thisuniversed. A rabbit has a lot of offspring, and so do humanse. All of the above2. What is the most important prerequisite to be a true philosopher?a. A good teacherb. A sense of wonderc. A good educationd. A sense of humore. None of the above3. How were the explanations from before the Pre-Socratic philosophers different from the kindsof explanations that came after them?a. They were trueb. They were falsec. They believed they could understand the world using their reasond. They explained the world in terms of the activities of the gods and mythse. Nothing, their explanations were the same4. The first philosopher and scientist in the western tradition was _____________.a. Aristophanesb. Socratesc. Thalesd. Adame. Homer5. The philosophers in the period before Socrates’ time were called:a. Eleaticsb. Ioniansc. Pre-Socraticsd. Platonistse. Thaleans6. Heraclitus’ central belief was ______________.a. The only thing that is constant is change.b. Nothing ever changesc. Everything is waterd. Everyone’s beliefs are true17. Which statement would Parmenides agree with?a. You can’t step into the same river twice.b. Nothing ever changes.c. All is number.d. The only thing we have to fear is fear itself.8. True or false. Democritus is the first person to suggest the existence of atoms.9. Who were the travelling “wise guys” in Greece that would teach people rhetoric, and to arguepersuasively?a. Eleaticsb. Philosophersc. Sophistsd. Socraticse. None of the above10. True or false. If you think that knowledge can only be obtained only (or primarily) throughreason, you are an empiricist.11. True or false. Much of what we know about Socrates comes from the books that he left behindafter his death.12. What was the claim the Oracle made about Socrates?a. He would be a great leader of menb. He would be killed for his beliefsc. There isn’t anyone wiser than himd. He was the smartest man in the worlde. He was smarter than a 5th grader13. What was the style of Socrates method of teaching?a. Lecturingb. Writing booksc. Singing songsd. Having a dialoguee. None of these14. True or false. For Socrates, in order to know the meaning of something like “truth” or “beauty”,it is enough to have memorized the correct definition.15. True or false. Plato is Socrates’s most famous student.16. True or false. Because he was an empiricist, Plato’s philosophy was centered around developingscientific principles for observable phenomena.217. Which is true of the Forms?a. They are eternalb. They are outside of space and timec. They are located in the human mindd. It is because of them that sensible objects have the features that they havee. All of the above18. True or false. According to Plato, we can never have knowledge of anything that is in a constantstate of change.19. True or false. According to Plato, it is possible to have knowledge which later turns out to befalse.20. In the allegory of the Cave, the people chained in the cave correspond to whom?a. Philosophers who believe crazy thingsb. Priests who believe in the godsc. People who only believe what their senses tell them.d. Everyonee. People who have not seen “The Matrix”21. What are the three parts of the soul, according to Plato?a. Body, mind, spiritb. Upper, middle, lowerc. Inner, outer, middled. Reason, emotions, appetitese. None of the above22. True or false. Aristotle rejected Plato’s rationalistic approach to philosophy for a more empiricalapproach to philosophy.23. Aristotle was:a. Interested in natural processesb. Europe’s first biologistc. Took a more scientific approach to philosophyd. Was known as “the great organizer”e. All of the above24. True or false. Unlike Plato, Aristotle understood “form” to be something located inside ofobjects, and made them what they were.25. According to Aristotle, everything in the world had purpose embedded in it. The Greek wordfor this is:a. Logosb. Telosc. Pogosd. Legose. None of the above326. According to Aristotle, what is it that makes humans different from other organisms?a. We have souls and animals do notb. Our capacity for feeling emotionsc. We are rational, animals are notd. Nothing makes us differente. None of the above27. True or false. Aristotle had a positive view of women. They were gentle and kind, andtherefore more human than men.28. What is the period of time dominated by Greek culture, after the time of Alexander the Great?a. Alexanderismb. Paganismc. Hellenismd. Sophisme. All of these29. When asked by Alexander what he wanted, Diogenes asked him for:a. World Peaceb. A position in his governmentc. To leave him aloned. To stop blocking the sune. Free meals in the Agora30. True or false. The Cynics believed it was important to remain involved in politics, but not to becorrupted by it.31. What would a good Stoic do if they found out they had a terminal illness?a. Curse the godsb. Pray for a safe journey into the afterlifec. Remain unconcerned and live their life virtuously regardlessd. Give up their possessions and be a full time philosopher while they still coulde. All of the above32. What is the Stoic approach to pain, suffering, and misfortune?a. Eat, drink, and be merry while you canb. Train oneself to endure the pain and misfortunec. Run away from the pain in books and meditationd. If we live well, we won’t suffer much paine. Stoicism said nothing about pain or suffering33. True or false. For Epicurus, pleasure is the greatest good, and pain is the greatest evil.434. Which is NOT one of Aristotle’s four causes:a. Materialb. Necessaryc. Syntheticd. Finale. Efficient35. The law of non-contradiction:a. states that nothing can be true and false at the same timeb. is a necessary truth about realityc. All of the aboved. None of the above36. True or false. Descartes’ goal is to find a foundation on which all knowledge can be built.37. True or false. European culture has its roots in both the Semitic and the indo-European cultures.38. The view that there are more than one God/gods:a. Monotheismb. Pantheismc. Polytheismd. Atheisme. Judaism39. The culture that was the ancestors of the Germans, Greeks, Celts.a. Indo-Europeanb. Semitic40. Which culture tended towards polytheism, sight as the primary sense, and a cyclicalview of history?a. Indo-Europeanb. Semitic41. Which culture tended towards monotheism, a linear view of history, and hearing as theprimary sense?a. Indo-Europeanb. Semitic42. Which one of these philosophers was not alive in the middle ages?a. Aristotleb. St. Augustinec. Thomas Aquinasd. Hildegard of Bingen543. What does the “Renaissance” mean?a. The age of Reasonb. Time after the middle agesc. Rebirthd. Time of Great thingse. Time of awesomeness44. True or false. One of the main ideas of the Renaissance was the idea that man wasinfinitely great and valuable.45. Which of these trends were parts of the Renaissance?a. Individualismb. Humanismc. The worship of geniusd. Boundless optimisme. All of the above46. What was significant about Nicolai Copernicus?a. He discovered the force of gravityb. He discovered that the earth was at the center of the universec. He discovered gun powderd. He claimed that the earth was not the center of the Universee. None of the above47. The idea that the earth revolves around the sun is called:a. Geocentric modelb. Heliocentric modelc. Paleocentric modeld. Solar model48. Who first noticed that Jupiter had moons which revolved around it?a. Keplerb. Newtonc. Galileod. Descartese. None of the above49. What does the word “baroque” mean?a. Brokenb. Oldc. Irregularly shapedd. Shiny and newe. None of the above650. If someone tells you “memento mori”, they are telling you:a. Remember the Alamob. Remember the happy timesc. Long live the Queend. Remember that you must diee. None of the above51. One of the main symbols of the Baroque period was:a. The cemeteryb. The theaterc. The oceand. The city52. Isaac Newton is generally considered to be the greatest scientist of all time. Why?a. He discovered the force of gravityb. He proved that gravity is a universal forcec. He formulated the laws of motiond. The proved that the same laws governed both the heavens and earth.e. All of the above53. What did Descartes believe could not be doubted?a. he does not existb. he is not being deceivedc. he existsd. he is dreaminge. none of the above54. Descartes argues against trusting the senses on the grounds that _____.a. His mother told him he has no senseb. they sometimes deceive himc. God allows sensory deceptiond. sense perception give us clear and distinct knowledgee. none of the above55. Berkeley asserts that existing and perceiving are _____________.a. Both illusionsb. One and the same thingc. Two different thingsd. Both are non-existente. None of the above756. Berkeley believes that sensible things cannot exist except in _____.a. a mindb. absolute existencec. material substanced. a material universe57. What was Locke’s view about how the mind perceives the world called?a. Idealismb. Representative Realismc. Nihilismd. Lockeanisme. none of the above58. According to Locke, when we come into the world, what do we know?a. we know that we are a thinking thingb. we have knowledge of time and space and causalityc. nothing, we are a “blank slate”d. we know everything, but have forgotten that we know it59. Which of these are primary qualities?a. weight, motion, and numberb. smell, color, taste, etc.c. both of the aboved. none of the above60. Which of these are “secondary qualities”?a. weight, motion, and numberb. smell, color, taste, etc.c. both of the aboved. none of the above61. According to Locke, when we touch, taste, or smell things in the world, we areexperiencing…a. Primary qualitiesb. Secondary qualitiesc. Ideasd. Nothing62. Which statement would Berkeley agree with?a. The physical world existsb. Nothing really existsc. Existence is really only perception of secondary qualitiesd. All we can really know are primary qualitiese. All of the above8Match the phrase with the philosopher:a. Descartesb. Berkeleyc. Humed. Lockee. Kant63. “Esse is percipi”64. “nothing exists in the mind, that was not first in the senses”65. Cogito ergo sum66. Matters of fact67. Categories of the understanding68. Hume believed that man has two different types of perceptions, these are…a. “good” impressions and “bad” impressionsb. “real” and “imaginary” impressionsc. “impressions” and “ideas”d. “thoughts” and “concepts”69. Hume was critical of which of these concepts…a. the selfb. causalityc. Godd. all of the abovee. none of the above70. True or false. One of the main ideas of the Enlightenment was to educate (enlighten)the people, in order to create a better society.71. What was another term for the period known as the Enlightenment?a. the Age of Machinesb. the Age of Ideasc. the Age of Reasond. the Age of Aquarius72. Which one of these was not one of the main ideas of the Enlightenment?a. opposition to authorityb. rationalismc. cultural optimismd. human rightse. all of these were main ideas of the Enlightenment973. True or false. Rousseau thought that our problems resulted from not enough reasonand being too emotional. We need to be more logical, rational.74. What did Kant call his new ideas about the interaction between the mind and theworld?a. Copernican Revolution of the mindb. Causal reificationc. Hegelian institution of the braind. Cogito ergo sum75. For Kant, what can’t know anything about:a. The world as it appears to us.b. the “Ding an sich” (things as they are outside of our perceptions)c. my own mindd. our perceptions76. Kant’s formulation of the universal moral law is called:a. Ten commandmentsb. Golden rulec. Categorical Imperatived. Situational hypothesis77. Which is a formulation of the Categorical Imperative?a. The Ten Commandmentsb. Do unto others as you would have them do unto youc. Never treat others simply as a means, but always as an endd. Do what thou wilt is the whole of the lawe. If it feels good, do it78. Which word was not one of the catchwords of Romanticism?a. feelingb. imaginationc. experienced. Reasone. all of the above79. True or false. Kant found a compromise between the claims of the empiricists and theclaims of the rationalists.1080. What did Kant call the various ways that the mind organizes and filters sensory data?a. Formsb. Patterns of datac. Categories of the Understandingd. Synthetic distinctions81. True or false. The Romantics longed for bygone eras, distant cultures, or places like oldruins, Twilight, or Night.82. True or false. The Romantics saw a “divine ego” in nature, that everything was anexpression of the “World Spirit”.83. What was one of the features of Hegel’s philosophy that distinguished him from hispredecessors such as Descartes, Spinoza, Hume and Kant?a. His emphasis on poetry as a way to express philosophical truthsb. His emphasis on Godc. there are no “eternal truths”, no timeless reasond. He never wrote anything down84. True or false. For Hegel, reason is a dynamic process; therefore truth must beunderstood as coming from a certain time and a certain place.85. For Hegel, history is:a. Pointlessb. moving towards greater chaos and disorderc. not something philosophers should worry aboutd. moving towards greater rationality and purpose86. What are the steps in Hegel’s dialectical pattern governing history?a. the good, the bad, and the uglyb. problem, solution, reactionc. thesis, antithesis, synthesisd. set, point, match87. True or false. Kierkegaard was more interested society and groups of people ratherthan individuals.88. True or false. Kierkegaard thought that Hegel’s “objective truths” were irrelevant to thepersonal life of the individual. Really important truths are personal.1189. What was the main cause of change in society, according to Marx?a. philosophyb. spiritual beliefsc. economic forcesd. randomness, chaos90. Marx said that societies are all composed of two parts; these were the _________ andthe _________.a. basis; superstructureb. foundation; super-foundationc. top; bottomd. inner; outer91. According to Marx, which of these groups have struggled against one another?a. Slaves; mastersb. Serfs; noblesc. Workers; Bossesd. All of the abovee. None of the above92. The process of Darwin’s theory of evolution is known as:a. Dog-eat-dogb. Original Speciesc. Survival of the fittestd. The Galapagos effecte. Atheism93. What is the view that blends Darwin’s theories with genetics?a. Super Darwinismb. Evolutionc. Neo-Darwinismd. Intelligent Designe. None of the above94. True or false. Marx believed that the contradictions inherent in Capitalism will cause itto collapse.95. True or false. Through evolution, creatures are constantly getting better and better.12Match the phrase with the philosopher:a. Sigmund Freudb. Hegelc. David Humed. Kante. Karl Marx96. “A specter is haunting Europe—the spectre of Communism.”97. “Two things fill my mind with ever-increasing wonder and awe, the more often and themore intensely the reflection dwells on them: the starry heavens above me and themoral law within me.”98. Thesis/antithesis/synthesis99. “If we take in our hands any volume…let us ask, does it contain any abstract reasoningconcerning quanitity or number?” No. “Does it contain any experimental reasoningconcerning matter of facts and existence?” No. commit it then to the flames, for it cancontain nothing but sophistry and illusion.”100.Ego/Superego/Id13



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